herbs backround

Broad-Spectrum CBD: Understanding The Cannabinoids, Hemp Terpenes, and Other Plant Compounds Found In Our Organic CBD Oils

Our Broad Spectrum CBD extracts come straight from the bud. All of the CBD hemp flower that we use to create our premium cannabinoid extractions contains a rich variety of plant compounds: cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, plant esters, lignanamides, and more!

Luckily, our proprietary extraction method retains all of these vital nutrients, while eliminating any trace of THC.

For this article, we will talk about three groups of hemp compounds. These include:

  • Cannabinoids (CBD, CBC, CBG, CBN, etc.)
  • Terpenes (Myrcene, Limonene, Humulene, β-caryophyllene, etc.)
  • Additional Hemp Compounds (Flavonoids, Esters, Lignanamides, etc.)

By definition, cannabinoids are a class of plant compounds that are exclusively produced by cannabis. Terpenes are the primary aromatic constituents of essential oils and are provided by a wide variety of plant species. The additional plant-chemicals, such as flavonoids, tannins, esters, and more, all maintain unique structures and roles. Each of these novel plant compounds has an exclusive interaction with a variety of physiological targets in both our nervous systems and/or peripheral body.

Discovering The Major Cannabinoids In Hemp

The cannabis plant can produce a wide variety of chemical components, depending on genetics, growing conditions, and storage methods. To date, over 500 unique, organic compounds have been discovered in this plant species. Over 100 of these elements are classified as cannabinoids.

Out of the 100+ cannabinoids in hemp, here are the most common and well-researched examples:

  • CBD (Cannabidiol)
  • CBC (Cannabichromene)
  • CBG (Cannabigerol)
  • CBN (Cannabinol)

Each of these elements interacts deeply with the human/animal endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS helps to maintain the regular functioning of a wide variety of physiological functions, striking a balance between the building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism) of the body. Ultimately, this system works to maintain homeostatic balance throughout our entire body and mind.

The endocannabinoid system utilizes a selection of endogenous chemical signallers, and cannabinoid receptors to carry out its vital role. The main chemical signallers (endocannabinoids) of the ECS are AEA and 2-AG. The central endocannabinoid receptors are CB1 and CB2. These components can be found in nearly every tissue of the body, highlighting the extensive reach of these plant-based cannabinoids. After entering the bloodstream, the cannabinoids found in broad-spectrum CBD can easily support the functioning of these endocannabinoid components in many ways.

  1. CBD ~ Cannabidiol has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it boosts circulating blood concentrations of AEA. AEA is an endogenously produced cannabinoid that is crucial in many vital functions such as neuroprotection, and immune regulation. CBD also helps to stimulate 5HT1-A and 5HT2-A serotonin receptors, which are essential in the management of mood and energy.
  2. CBC ~ Cannabichromene has a low affinity for CB1 receptors, but it is a successful activator of CB2 receptor sites. CBC also influences TRPV vanilloid pain receptors, modifying TRPV 1-4 channels. TRPV activation can help with painful stimuli, GI balance, and more.
  3. CBG ~ Cannabigerol is quickly becoming a popular choice among hemp connoisseurs. CBG has a low affinity for CB1 receptors, but it has been shown to help stimulate activity at CB2 receptor sites. CB2 receptor activity is related to the healthy functioning of our immune system, among many other vital functions. CBG also helps to inhibit the inflammatory COX 1/2 enzymes.
  4. CBN ~ Cannabinol is usually produced by hemp plant material post-harvest, due to the degradation of other cannabinoids after exposure to heat and light. CBN is a weak agonist (activator) for CB1/CB2. CBN is a potent TRPA1 receptor agonist. The healthy functioning of this receptor can help promote healthy cellular survival and pain reduction.

Common CBD Terpenes

Terpenes are the aromatic and flavorful components found in herbs, spices, plant foods - you name it. They are the major constituents in essential oils, and terpenes are even floating around in the air of every forest, making them partially responsible for the incredible scents, and restorative powers of nature.

Various plants will produce the same terpenes. For example, Limonene occurs in both hemp and lemons, while Myrcene is produced by hemp, mangos, and hops. Various concentrations of these terpenes will result in a unique physiological activation of the body and mind.

The most common terpenes that occur along with CBD in hemp plant material are:

  • Myrcene
  • Limonene
  • Humulene
  • β-caryophyllene

None of these terpenes are unique to the Cannabis sativa L. plant species. Still, they positively contribute to the unique aroma associated with cannabis use, and many researchers suggest that the given terpenoid profile of any given cannabis/hemp strain will influence the subjective effects of its consumption.

  1. Myrcene is the most common cannabis/hemp terpene, which contributes to the plant's signature skunky aroma. This terpene activates TRPV1 receptors. TRPV1 activation is connected to a reduction in pain sensation. Myrcene also inhibits the CYP2B1 enzyme. Inhibition of this enzyme can lead to a decrease in DNA damage.
  2. Limonene, which can be found in grapefruit, lemon, or lime, is another frequently occurring hemp terpene. Scientists are currently investigating the likely activation of 5HT1-A serotonin receptors by this natural terpene, which would explain its anti-anxiety effects. This terp also protects the gut by increasing levels of helpful gastric mucosa. Gut health is intimately connected to mood, so this attribute may contribute to Limonene's overall stress-reducing impact.
  3. Humulene, also produced by cloves, basil, and hops, is found in high concentrations in popular cannabis strains such as Girl Scout Cookies, and White Widow. This terpenoid compound is known to modify inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin, iNOS, and COX-2 concentrations. This leads to a marked anti-inflammatory response. In general, humulene has shown promise as an anti-pain and anti-anxiety agent, perhaps explained by its ability to combat inflammation.
  4. β-caryophyllene can be found in hemp, black pepper, and cloves. This terpene has been shown to stimulate CB2 receptors leading to its classification as a cannabimimetic (cannabinoid-mimicking compound). This CB2 stimulation is likely the driving force behind β-caryophyllene's researched-backed anti-inflammatory and pain-reducing qualities.

Notice how our kitchen cabinets are beginning to seem like valuable sources for rejuvenation and holistic wellness? That's precisely the point. CBD products have a unique set of cannabinoids which can't be found anywhere else, but a large variety of herbs, spices, and veggies also have invaluable and distinctive chemical components! For optimal results, combine CBD use with a diet rich in plant-based, naturally healthy foods.

Into The Weeds: Flavonoids, Lignanamides, and Plant Esters - Oh My!

By discussing terpenes and cannabinoids, we've only begun to scratch the surface of the chemical complexities produced by hemp/cannabis plants. In reality, there are hundreds of other organic compounds which carry out unique roles in holistic wellbeing. Three other types of plant compounds found in hemp are flavonoids, lignanamides, and esters. Each of these types of compounds has been identified in the cannabis plant, but ultimately the roles of each are still being studied.

Cannabis flavonoids include cannflavin A/B/C, vitexin, isovitexin, apigenin, kaempferol, and more. Within the plant, these elements may serve functions such as attracting pollinating insects and allowing the plant to be aware of the current photo-period (time of day/status of illumination). In human and animal studies, the potential flavonoid health benefits being studied are antioxidation, antibiotic assistance, antiallergenic effects, antidiarrheal aid, and neuroprotective support. Flavonoid supplements are a great way to access these vital attributes. However, flavonoid foods, such as legumes, fruits, and vegetables, also contain essential expressions of these plant compounds, giving us just one more reason to reach for healthy food choices.

Lignanamides, such as the Cannabisin (A-G) and Sativamide A/B, have also been isolated from the cannabis plant. Little is known about this class of compounds, but they have shown the potential to reduce toxic damage to cells, combat neurodegeneration, and provide antioxidation. As research progresses, we are excited to learn about the benefits provided by these organic hemp compounds.

Cannabis esters are a hot topic in the cannabis community. Some enthusiasts are claiming that strains with high plant ester concentrations have an amplified smell that is often associated with high-grade cannabis. New research also shows that these plant esters can be related to non-psychoactive cannabinoid elements such as CBG-A and CBN-A. These cannabinoids marked with an "-A" are the acidic versions of these common cannabinoids, which carry out vital roles in the development of cannabis plants. While the total functions of these chemical constituents are currently unknown, they have displayed antimicrobial effects, and an ability to enhance endocannabinoid functioning.

Getting The Most Out Of Your CBD Regimen

We want our readers to be informed, but ultimately, we just want our clients to understand the actual value of lab-tested CBD products. These non-psychoactive, organic gifts can go a long way towards improving our overall health and wellness. Enjoy our educational resources, but only hold onto the details that encourage you to engage your CBD routine in an effective and grounded manner.

Take your time and get to know your products. Although CBD has been shown to be non-toxic, even in massive doses (700mg + daily), it is still recommended to observe your relationship with these items over time. Start with low CBD doses, to see how your body and mind relate to the formulas, and slowly build up as needed. Some users find that the value of CBD administration increases after one to two weeks. Nature’s intelligence is slow and steady, yet powerful. By approaching hemp with knowledge and responsibility, you will undoubtedly thrive with our all-natural products.

If you are interested in experiencing the value of all of these hemp compounds first hand, check out our Broad Spectrum CBD Tinctures. We also have 99.9% pure CBD isolate products available such as our exclusive CBD Vape Liquid, Lip Balm, and Muscle Rub. If you've been on the fence, now is the time. Order your first-class Liberty Organics CBD today, and have these legal, lab-tested cannabinoid alternatives delivered directly to your door.